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Toy / Small & Snubbed Nosed Breed Ailments
(Snubbed - AKA Brachycephalic Breeds)
- little dogs are prone to many different health issues here is some of them.


 
Canine Hypoglycemia-
 

Please remember that puppies and even adult dogs 5 pounds and under are predisposed to hypoglycemiaand must eat at regular interevals. A stressed out puppy can be given light Karo syrup or honey rubbed on gums every few hours to keep levels up and help stimulate them to eat and drink on there own. Most pups after the first dose will start eating and drinking within a half hour or so in my expirence.

 

Hypoglycemia is common in Toy dog breeds, such as Yorkshire Terrier, Toy Poodle, Pomeranian and other toy dog breeds, and usually seen in puppies 5 to 16 weeks of age. Stress, low body temperature, poor nutrition, sudden change in feed, water and schedule patterns, infections, and premature birth may precipitate the onset of hypoglycemia. Some puppies bred exclusively for tiny size ("teacup Yorkies, "teacup Chihuahua"), are even more predisposed to transient juvenile hypoglycemia since insufficient muscle mass may make it difficult for the body to store the glucose and keep its blood sugar properly regulated. It has been proven experimentally that eight hours fasting in a Yorkshire Terrier puppy can result in marked variation of blood glucose, showing both hypo- and hyperglycemia. Frequent feeding of a high-energy, protein-rich diet to both mother and puppies may prevent toy-breed puppies from developing hypoglycemia and may help them to overcome periods with a decreased intake of energy.

 

Glucose is a type of sugar the body derives from food. The body uses glucose (blood sugar) as its primary energy source. Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, helps glucose move to the cells of the body so it can be used as nourishment and energy. Hypoglycemia occurs when the concentration of blood sugar levels in the body drop below normal.


Although this condition can affect any animal, those most at risk are: young puppies (juvenile hypoglycemia), working/hunting dogs, pregnant or nursing animals, and diabetic dogs on insulin. Toy breed dogs less than three months of age are the most commonly affected. Hypoglycemia is common in puppies because they have not fully developed the ability to regulate their blood sugar.Stress from cold, Not eating due to Stress, Not being fed often enough, Exercise or Extreme Excitement, Malnutrition from less then quality food, or intestinal parasites may trigger hypoglycemia. Puppies or adult dogs with liver shunts may also develop hypoglycemia. Diabetic dogs who receive too much insulin can become hypoglycemic. In adult dogs, hypoglycemia may occur from hormone imbalances, as a result of severe Addison's Disease, liver disease, pancreatic tumors, sepsis, or as a complication of pregnance. Symptoms of hypoglycemia will vary depending on how low and how fast the dog's blood sugar level drops. Symptoms include but are not limited to: drowniess, shivering, collapsing, Lethargy, Weakness, Head tilting, Restlessness, Trembling, Disorientation, Slow breathing, Convulsions or seizures. In severe cases, hypoglycemic dogs may lose consciousness and fall into a coma. A dog can die from hypoglycemia if not treated.

 

Prevention - Dogs that have had hypoglycemic episodes, or that may be subject to hypoglycemia should be fed frequent, small meals of quality diet, be kept warm, and excerised apporpriately.

 

Treatment - Your veterinarian can do a blood test to check your dog's blood sugar levels. If your dog is exhibiting mild signs of hypoglycemia, begin treatment by offering your dog some of it's regular food or treats. Corn Syrup (such as white Karo Syrup), sugar water, or honey, can be added to the food to increase your dog's blood sugar levels. For small dogs start with 1 teasppon and larger dogs 1 table spoon.

 

If your dog is severely hypoglycemic, unconscious or having seizures, you must get some sugar into it immediately. Corn syrup works well because it is a very pure sugar in liquid form. Carefully rub small amounts of syrup on the gums and inside the cheeks. You can use a syringe without a needle to give corn syrup to your dog and reduce the risk of being bitten, but do not use a lot of liquid, to avoid your dog choking. The blood sugar raising effects of corn syrup will last only for a short time, and the hypoglycemia may return. Keep a close eye on your dog and give more syrup or syrup and food as needed until you can get your dog to a veterinarian. If your dog is showing any symptoms of hypoglycemia, treat it accordingly. Better to be safe than sorry. If your dog is not hypoglycemic, you may have raised its blood sugar level for a few hours and if it is, you may have saved his life. Because puppies of 5 to 15 weeks of age are the most commonly affected, most dogs will outgrow this condition as they mature. For other causes of hypoglycemia, treating the underlying disorder is obviously the best way to avoid hypoglycemic episodes. If hypoglycemia is a concern with your dog, have easy and quick access to liquid sugar available. Some suggestions for carrying a sugar supply are: packets of honey, a small syringe (without needle) prefilled with corn syrup, small plastic bottles (with a leak proof lid), or even a tube of cake decorating gel.

 

Hypoglycemia Can Be Caused by Xylitol - Puppies and dogs can develop severe hypoglycemia after consuming sugar free gum sweetend with the sugar- alcohol xylitol. In humans, xylitol has little to no effect on plasma insulin or glucose levels, but in dogs xylitol is a strong promoter of insulin release and can cause severe hypogylcemia with collapse and seizures. With the increae appearance of xylitol sweetend products in the US xylitol toxicoso may become more common. Sometimes a dog will outgrow this condition. Often after puppies hit the 5-6 pound mark they are less at risk as long as they are fed a couple meals throughout the day until they become adults and can regualte there systems.

 

 

 

Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE)- There is new news on this since 2010-11 research!

 

Pug Dog Encephalitis is an inflammatory disease of the brain affecting Pug dogs of either sex. The disease is considered unique to the Pug breed. Similar symptoms have been reported in Maltese, Pekingese and Yorkshire Terrier breeds but is not the same.

 

PDE is an invariably fatal disease in the Pug which generally affect Pugs between 6 weeks to 9 years old but median age is 18 months old. Fawn female pugs younger then 7 years old of age are more likely to develop PDE then older, male, non fawn colored pugs. Most pugs affected are on average euthanized 21 days after due to uncontrollable seizures and coma. Clinically, the disease is described as a necrotizing meningoencephalitis. This means that the brain and the layer of tissues surrounding the brain are abnormally inflamed. The term "necrotizing" describes the clinical way in which portions of the brain are literally dying. Although these portions may be very small, they are numerous and cause severe and progressive neurologic symptoms.

 

Specific symptoms of PDE include: seizures, pressing of the head against a wall or furniture, a staggering walk, apparent blindness, lethargy, depression, and neck pain. When first presenting symptoms, most pugs simply quit jumping on or off furniture as they once did casually and they appear to have a "stiff neck". Other symptoms include depression, abnormal gait, staring off into space, and intermittent screaming.

 

Pug dog encephalitis is difficult to diagnose since its symptoms often relate to other CNS diseases. Seizures may be caused by many other underlying conditions such as hypoglycemia, canine distemper, rabies, toad poisoning, chemicals and toxic plants ingestion. Sometimes it is possible to make the correct diagnosis using the magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI), or analyzing the white blood cells in the spinal fluid. But most often the disease is diagnosed after the dog dies.

 

Although PDE is always terminal, treatment may control seizures and reduce the inflammatory process in the brain for a short period of time. A veterinarian may prescribe medication which will make the Pug feel more comfortable, but there is currently no known cure for PDE nor are there medications to alleviate all the symptoms.

 

What causes PDE?

 

What causes this disease is still being researched!  The current tests are not yet very accurate  and unable to tell which dogs will will be affected.  The current test only about 11% of pugs that are S/S (carrying the genes they think may be related) will actually develop PDE which is about 1/8 dogs that are double carries of the gene being researched currently. They only have a 12.75% greater chance then dogs with 1 or NO Markers which means not having the currently markers they look for does not mean your dog with not get PDE!!!


The disease has no cure but if we can pin point the correct markers in genes with further research we can help reduce the odds of litters being born with high risk.

 

The discovery in research so far indicates that PDE is a form of autoimmune disease. It is possible that PDE susceptible dogs being exposed to environmental triggers can cause an autoimmune response. They are still looking into those factors.

 

It is being strongly urged that breeders not remove all pugs with 2 copies of markers from breeding but to selectively breed dogs with no markers, only one, or one with 2 copies of marker to a dog with no markers. This way you produce pups with no markers or only one marker which makes them at low risk to develop PDE.

 

How can I prevent PDE in my Pugs?

Since we do not have definitive answer on the causes of PDE, we can not definitively prevent it. However research is currently working on this!




Elongated Soft Palate -

A problem that is frequently seen in pugs is called, elongated soft palate. The soft palate is a flap of mucousal tissue which closes off the animal's airway (nasopharynx) during swallowing to prevent foods and liquids from going into their lungs.

In the figure to the left, you can see the soft palate just above the Esophagus. In animals with a normal soft palate, it touches or slightly overlaps the epiglottis.

In dogs with an elongated soft palate, the palate overlaps the epiglottis to a considerable degree, partially obstructing the animal's airway during breathing. This is manifested by snorting, snoring, strider, gurgling and gagging. The obstruction is worse with exercise.

In time, stretched ligaments in the larynx leads to labored breathing and laryngeal collapse. Laryngeal collapse is a late stage in airway obstruction. Pressure changes caused by the elongated soft palate bring about the stretching of the ligaments that support the laryngeal cartilages. These cartilages gradually collapse inward and block the airway. (See the drawing below).


In the diagram you can see that more air moves freely in and out of the lungs in the normal dog's airway, but the dog with the collapsed airway has less air flowing through it. At this stage any changes in the dog's need for air can cause acute respiratory insufficiency and cardiac arrest.


TREATMENT: An elongated soft palate is treated by surgically shortening the palate so that the edge opposes or slightly overlaps the epiglottis. Results are good and can extend the life of your pug by years if the operation is done before destructive changes occur in the larynx. It is for that reason that you have your Pug checked by a veterinarian who is familiar with Pugs and is skilled in identifying this abnormality.

 

 

Anal Glands-

 

Anal glands are little sacs on the side of the and they typically fill up with a smelly brown fluid. They may become inflamed or impacted. Sometimes constipation is the culprit. This is typical among Pugs and Japanese Chins. Some dogs go in regularly to have their anal glands done. A typcical sign of Anal Gland Impaction is your dog scooting along the ground or turning around looking at his anal area. Some owners may even feel that their spayed female is still having a heat cycle because she may emit a brown fluid. This is coming from her anal glands, not her vulva. Certain Breeds are prone to need there anal glands to be expressed. You can do this yourself, however, I have not very many dog owners willing to do this. Your vet can show you how..It is important that the glands are emptied or one or both can become infected and abscess. If the anal glands become infected, they can generally be treated with antibiotics, however, if they abscess, surgical drainage is often the only way to irradicate the problem. If the infection is very inflammed or chronically infected, they may need to be removed.

 

A good balanced diet and daily exercise can eliminate anal gland problems. A good walk around the block will not only help the glands from getting impacted, but also will keep your Pugs nails down! A very small leak from the anal glands of your dog can cause a horrible, foul odor. You may not even see it but it may be only a smudge into your dog's coat or legs. Some Pug owners who can not determine the origin of a bad odor on their dog have come to discover that is is anal gland 'juice' leaking. Infected sacs will usually cause a lot of pain for your dog. Do not allow it to get to this stage. If your dog expresses bloody mucous material from the sac, then chances are, his anals glands are infected and this is best handled by your Vet.

 

 

 

 

Eye Conditions-

 

 

Dislocation of the Eyeball
Dislocation of one or both eyeballs can be a common problem in dogs with large bulging eyes such as Boston Terriers, Pugs, Pekingese, Maltese and some spaniels. It is generally caused by dog bites or other trauma. Struggling with these dogs while attempting to hold or restrain them for any reason can cause the eye to bulge out so far that they eyelids snap shut behind the eyeball. This prevents the eyeball from returning to the socket. If this happens, it is an emergency! If not treated right away it may lead to loss of vision.
Shortly after the eye dislocates, swelling behind the eye makes it extremely difficult to return the eyeball to its normal position. Proceed at once to the nearest veterinary hospital. Carry the dog, if possible. Cover the eye with a wet wash cloth. Prevent the

dog from pawing at the eye.

 

 

Corneal Abrasions
The cornea is the clear part of the eye. Corneal injuries are extremely painful and require immediate veterinary attention. Affected dogs will squint, tear, and avoid light. The third eyelid often comes out to protect the injured eye. Breeds with bulging eyes, such as the Pekingese, Maltese, Boston Terrier, Pugs and some spaniels are particularly susceptible to corneal injuries.
Corneal abrasions occur when either the dog accidentally scratches the cornea when itching or when a foreign body such as dirt or lint gets in the eye and damages this surface layer of the eye. Swelling at the site of the injury can cause the area to appear hazy or opaque when viewed under magnification.
Corneal abrasions in the upper part of the cornea may be caused by misdirected eyelashes. Lower corneal opacities suggest an imbedded foreign body. Abrasions near the inner portion of the eye can be caused by a foreign body beneath the third eyelid.
Corneal abrasions heal once the foreign body has been removed in about 3 - 5 days. However, healing will not occur if the foreign body is embedded in the cornea or is beneath one of the eyelids. It is for this reason that all corneal abrasions should be see by your vet to prevent further injury and/or infection.

 

Corneal Ulcers are usually the result of an injury, such as a scratch. When the surface of the eye is broken, it hurts and tears. The injury itself can be so small that you will not even be able to see it, unless light is cast upon it from the side or a special dye is used. Bacteria can cause the scratch to become infected, but in a healthy animal recovery with treatment is common.

 

Eye Out Of Socket- Because the Brachycephalic dog's eyeballs slightly bulge out and because their eyes are not protected by a protuding nose, this leaves their eyes at risk. Their eyeballs can get easily scratched, but sometimes, a trauma can cause their eyeball to pop out. Other things that can cause an eyeball to pop out would be a small child smacking a Pug on its head or dropping it on its head.

 

Trichiasis- This condition is where hairs/eyelashes grow inward and will scratch the eye tissues of the eyeball. It can cause tearing and squinting. If the Pug is in pain, surgery may be required to correct it.

 

Entropian- The eyelid is inverted in this case. It affects the lower lid and affects the eye. It will cause irritation to the cornea because the lashes rub against it. Seek Veterinarian care. Sometimes the eyes of the Brachycephalic dog's can get scratched by a bush or a cat. If the eye does get scratched, you will need to get him to a vet promptly for treatment. An eye injury is always serious and generally always needs treatment. If an eye sratch is left untreated, it can lead to other serious complications, including blindness. Sometimes, after a walk or a romp in the park, dog's eyes may come home with dust in his eyes or wind irritation. He may have watery eyes and blink frequently. You can soothe his eyes by using doggy eye drops found at a pet store or by using a simple Visine solution. However, never treat an eye injury with eye drops as this can further damage the situation. When you are applying eye drops, make sure it is because of an irritation from wind or dust, and not from a scratch. If there is any doubt in your mind, do not hesitate, take your dog to the vet promptly as it is always better safe than sorry when it comes to your little buddies beautiful eyes. Your Vet may need to prescribe a special eye ointment.

 

 

 

 

 

Ear Conditions-

 

 

Infections of the Outer Ear
External otitis is and infection of the outer ear and the ear canal. The ear canals are delicate structures and can easily become infected if not properly cared for. 80% of infections occur in breeds with long floppy ears. The reason this is the case is that when the ears get wet for whatever reason (during a bath or from being licked by another dog) not enough air gets to circulate in the ear canals to help dry them out and keep them dry. Breeds with erect ears have fewer ear infections because there is better air circulation. Where there is moisture, bacteria is sure to begin growing and this causes the infection to begin.
Other causes of outer ear infections include narrowing of the ear canal which can cause wax build up and moisture collection in the ear, allergic skin diseases, foreign bodies in the ears such as foxtails, or burrs, or ear mites. Also well meant, but improper ear cleaning can actually cause moisture to go further into the ear canal.
Signs of an external ear infection include: head shaking, scratching and rubbing at the affected ear. The dog often tilts or carries his head down on the painful side and cries or whines when the ear is touched. If you were to look into the ear you would see redness and swelling of the skin folds. There is usually a waxy or white discharge accompanied by a foul odor. Hearing can also be affected.

 

Bacterial Infections. Infections caused by a bacteria are usually caused by staphylococci. The discharge is usually moist and light brown. Other bacteria that can cause ear infections include pseudomonas or proteus. They usually cause the drainage to be yellow or green. There can also be more than one bacteria growing during an infection. When this occurs treatment with antibiotics can be more difficult.

 

Fungal and Yeast Infections. Yeast infections can occur as a result of treating a bacterial infection with antibiotics. They are also common in dogs suffering from Hypersensitive skin disorders. Usually a brown discharge is noted along with a rancid odor. These infections tend to persist until the underlying disease is controlled.

 

Treatment:
Because infections of the outer ear can quickly move to the middle and inner ear, it is extremely important to take your dog to your veterinarian as soon as you suspect that they have an ear infection. Only they can do a thorough inspection of the ear canal to determine the extent of the infection, the type of infection, and determine if any damage has already occurred to the inner and middle ear. Once a diagnosis has been made, proper treatment (such as antibiotics) can then be prescribed. Always make sure that the precise dosage of medication is given and do not stop giving the medication to the dog even if he/she seems to feel better.

 

 

 

Luxating patella (or trick knee, subluxation of patella, or floating patella)

 

This is a condition in which the patella, or kneecap, dislocates or moves out of its normal location.

Patellar luxation is a common condition in dogs. particularly small and miniature breeds. The condition usually becomes evident between the ages of 4 to 6 months.

 

 

 

Umibilica Hernia -

 

An umbilical hernia is a condition in which abdominal contents protrude through the abdominal wall at the area of the umbilicus. Small hernias are generally not a problem. It is recommended to electively repair a larger hernia due to the risk of intestinal loop strangulation.


The exact cause of an umbilical hernia is unknown although most are thought to be inherited. It is most commonly thought to be a congenital malformation caused by flawed embryogenesis. The umbilical opening is normal until birth as it contains blood vessels that pass through from the mother to the fetus. This opening closes at birth in the normal pet and a hernia results if the opening fails to close. However umbilical hernia can be caused by the rough chewing and tearing of the cord at birth and is common in brachycephalic and toy breed dogs.

 

There is true hernias and then there are ones that just need time to close on there own. However if there is always a buldge the whole can not often heal fully as the buldge is partially in the way.


Umbilical hernias are more common in dogs than cats. They occur on the midline of the abdominal wall through the umbilical ring and can be a variety of sizes from very small to very big. The hernia appears as a soft abdominal mass at the area of the umbilicus. Depending on the size of the opening, abdominal structures such as falciform fat or omentum can float into the opening. This generally does not cause a problem. However, if the opening is large enough, an intestinal loop can become trapped which can become a life-threatening problem. For this reason, it is recommended that larger hernias be closed afte. This is most often done concurrently with the spay or castration surgery.


Some breeds are predisposed to umbilical hernias usually toy breeds and brachycephalic breeds. Brachycephalic (snubbed nose) breeds often have a hard time chewing off the umbilical cords causing the hernia in the puppy.