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Raising Champion Line AKC Pugs & English Labrador Retrievers with Love and Care.

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Labrador Retrievers




The Labrador Retriever, also Labrador, is a type of retriever-gun dog. The Labrador is one of the most popular breeds of dog in the United States for families and hunting.


English Labrador - Tends to be more laid back is shorter and has broader body and face and meets confirmation standards for the ring better.  They often comes from show lines or came from European lines both types are considered "English".  English tend to be a litter harder to find.

American Labrador - Tends to be taller and more narrow.  They tend have a higher drive and energy level.  They often come from hunting lines.  You find American labradors the most.

Life Span: 10 – 12 years

Height: Male: 22–24 inches (57–62 cm), Female: 22–24 inches (55–60 cm)

Temperament: Outgoing, Even Tempered, Gentle, Agile, Kind, Intelligent, Trusting.  They are very loving and easily trained as they have a high drive to please.  They can make great therapy or rescue dogs as they are highly intelligent, get along great with people and other animals, and have an incredible ability to learn, this is also what makes them wonderful family pets as well!

Colors: Black, Yellow (there are various shades), Chocolate

Weight Averages: Male: 64–80 lbs (29–36 kg), Female: 50–71 lbs (25–32 kg)

Care:  Their coats are self maintaining and need little maintenance.  They do need a yard and regular exercise as they are prone to becoming over weight.  Most labs love water and swimming it a great form of exercise for them! 

General Health Problems
:
Some of the general health conditions that afflict Labradors are patellar luxation, canine hip dysplasia, and osteochondritis dissecans, which is canine elbow and shoulder dysplasia. This breed also occasionally suffers from distichiasis, exercise-induced collapse, diabetes, muscular dystrophy, tricuspid valve dysplasia, and entroption. Minor health concerns include retinal dysplasia, central progressive retinal atrophy, hypothyroidism, hot spots, and cataract. Knee, hip, eye, and elbow tests should be included in the usual medical check-ups.


Genetics Tests:

DM -
Degenerative Myelopathy is a progressive neurological disorder that affects the spinal cord of dogs. Dogs that have inherited two defective copies will experience a breakdown of the cells responsible for sending and receiving signals from the brain, resulting in neurological symptoms.

 

The disease often begins with an unsteady gait, and the dog may wobble when they attempt to walk. As the disease progresses, the dog's hind legs will weaken and eventually the dog will be unable to walk at all. Degenerative Myelopathy moves up the body, so if the disease is allowed to progress, the dog will eventually be unable to hold his bladder and will lose normal function in its front legs. Fortunately, there is no direct pain associated with Degenerative Myelopathy.

 

The onset of Degenerative Myelopathy generally occurs later in life starting at an average age of about 8 years. However, some dogs may begin experiencing symptoms much earlier, some later, and a small percentage of dogs that have inherited two copies of the mutation will not experience symptoms at all. Thus, this disease is not completely penetrant, meaning that while a dog with the mutation is highly likely to develop Degenerative Myelopathy, the disease does not affect every dog that has the genotype.



CMN -
Centronuclear Myopathy, previously known as HMLR, or Hereditary Myopathy, is an autosomal recessive mutation that causes insufficient muscle function in the Labrador Retriever breed. This is due to the centralisation of the nuclei in muscle fibers, caused by a missense insertion in the PTPLA gene.


Puppies are born apparently normal; however, it quickly becomes evident that there is a problem. The puppy will often not gain weight adequately due to decreased muscle tone in the esophagus. Within 2 to 5 months, the disease has usually progressed to display the full range of symptoms, including a loss of muscle tone and control, an awkward gait, and extreme exercise intolerance. This condition is exacerbated in cold conditions.

Unfortunately, there is no cure for CNM, as the dog will never develop properly functioning muscle tissue. The dog usually has a normal life span but he will always be plagued with the symptoms of Centronuclear Myopathy.


Centronuclear myopathy is a recessive disorder, meaning that the dog must have two copiesof the defective gene to suffer from the disease. A dog can also be a carrier (CNM/n) of this disease, and will not display any symptoms. A carrier dog will pass on the mutation that causes CNM to 50% of it's offspring. If mated with another carrier dog, there is a 25% chance of producing an offspring affected by Centronuclear Myopathy.



CY - Canine Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects a dog's ability to filter cystine out of urine. Normally, tubules in the kidney are responsible for re-absorption of cystine, filtering it out of the urine. In dogs with Canine Cystinuria, the tubules are unable to transport the cystine, allowing it to accumulate in the urine. Cystine is generally insoluble in the acidic conditions of canine urine, allowing it to crystallize and form caliculi, also known as stones.

Not every dog that has the mutation responsible for Cystinuria will exhibit symptoms. Stones causing inflammation and blockage are often more common in males, due to their long, narrow urethra. Females exhibit symptoms much less frequently and may be completely asymptomatic.


Cystinuria is a recessive disorder, meaning that the dog must have two copies of the defective gene to suffer from the disease. Because Cystinuria is a recessive disorder, a dog can also be a carrier of this disease, meaning it carries one copy of the mutation but does not display any symptoms. A carrier dog can pass on this mutation to their offspring and if they mate with another carrier dog, can produce offspring affected by Cystinuria.



EIC - Exercise-Induced Collapse is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing affected dogs to suffer from a loss of muscle control following periods of extreme exercise. Typically, an affected dog begins to show symptoms between 5 months and 3 years of age, usually around the age that more intensive training begins.

 

EIC episodes generally occur after 5-25 minutes of extreme exercise. Not all types of exercise can induce an attack; generally the dog must be actively running and excited for an extended period of time. The attacks often begin with rocking, followed by the hind limbs becoming weak and giving out. The severity of these attacks ranges between different dogs; some will continue to attempt to retrieve, dragging their hind legs along, and other will be totally unable to move, acting disoriented. These attacks usually only last about 5-25 minutes, however, in some extreme cases, dogs have died immediately following an EIC attack.

 

Dogs with Exercise-Induced Collapse can still lead full lives. However, it is important for dog owners to be familiar with what types of activities a dog can participate in and what types of games may trigger an episode.

 

Because EIC is a recessive disorder, a dog must have two copies of the mutation in order for the disease to manifest. This means that a dog can have one copy of the mutation and not experience any signs or symptoms of EIC; this dog would be known as a carrier. The carrier can then pass on either the normal gene or the mutated gene to any offspring. If two carriers are bred, a dog could potentially receive the mutated gene from each parent and be affected by EIC.




Exercise-Induced Collapse (EIC) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing affected dogs to suffer from a loss of muscle control following periods of extreme exercise. Typically, an affected dog begins to show symptoms between 5 months and 3 years of age, usually around the age that more intensive training begins.

 



HUU - Dogs with this genetic mutation metabolize waste products as uric acid in their urine. The uric acid forms into hard stones in the bladder, causing pain and inflammation as the stone moves through the urinary tract.

 

A dog that has difficulty urinating or appears to have an inflamed bladder may have HUU. Other signs can include blood in the urine and frequent urination. If the dog is unable to pass the urate stones without medical intervention, surgery may be required to remove them. And if the urinary tract is blocked, the condition can be life threatening. Even in the best case scenario, HUU is uncomfortable and painful for the dog.


The mutation is autosomal recessive. Both parents will need to be carriers of the mutation to pass it on to their offspring. Carriers will not show any symptoms of HUU and even affected dogs may not show any signs, so it is important to test dogs for HUU prior to breeding.




HNPK -Hereditary nasal parakeratosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder in Labrador Retrievers. A mutation T>G in the SUV39H2 gene causes the nose to dry out leading to chronic irritation and inflammation of the noses skin.

 

Symptoms of the disorder generally appear around 6 to 12 months of age. Affected dogs develop dry, rough; gray to brown crusts on the surface and edge of the nose. In some cases, painful cracks around and on the tip of the nose develop and if not treated develop superficial bacterial infections. Over time, the nose often begins to depigment changing skin color from dark to light in color. Although the disorder is nonlife threatening, continuous care to reduce the recurrence of excessive nasal crusting is required throughout the life of the dog.

 

Because HNPK is a recessive disorder, a dog must have two copies of the mutation in order for the disease to manifest. This means that a dog can have one copy of the mutation and not experience any signs or symptoms of HNPK; this dog would be known as a carrier. The carrier can then pass on either the normal gene or the mutated gene to any offspring. If two carriers are bred, there is a 25% chance of haveing a dog that recieves two mutated copies of the gene and would be affected by HNPK.




PKD - Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency is a disorder that affects red blood cells. Dogs suffering from pyruvate kinase deficiency have a mutated form of pyruvate kinase, an important enzyme in cellular metabolism. This defect causes the red blood cells to die, leading to severe hemolytic anemia. Because red blood cells deliver oxygen to tissues around the body, it is important that dogs are able to maintain an adequate supply of red blood cells, and dogs suffering from PK deficiency typically are chronically anemic.


Symptoms of PKD usually begin to show between four months to one year. The symptoms can include weakness, lack of energy, rapid heart rate, heart murmurs, pale gums, and stunted growth. As the disease progresses, bones and the liver can be affected, and the disease is ultimately fatal. Dogs with PKD commonly die before 4 years of age. However, longevity is affected by the breed of dog, with some breeds able to survive longer than others. While there is currently no cure for PKD, it is possible for affected dogs to have a reasonable quality of life with palliative care.


Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency (PKD) is an autosomal recessive trait which means both parents of an affected (homozygous) dog must be carriers (heterozygous) for the disorder. Heterozygous dogs are usually asymptomatic, and it may be difficult to detect clinical signs of the condition in inactive homozygous dogs. It is therefore useful to test for the presence of the mutation before breeding.



PRA-prcd - Progressive Retinal Atrophy

Progressive Rod-cone degeneration, or PRA-prcd, is a form of Progressive retinal Atrophy (PRA) in which the cells in the retina of a dog degenerate and die. PRA is the dog equivalent of retinitis pigmentosa in humans. Most affected dogs will not show signs of vision loss until 3-5 years of age. Complete blindness can occur in older dogs. Progressive Rod-Cone Degeneration is a form of PRA known to affect over 40 different breeds.

 

The retina is a membrane located in the back of the eye that contains two types of cells known as photoreceptors. These cells take light coming into the eyes and relay it back to the brain as electrical impulses. These impulses are interpreted by the brain as vision. In dogs suffering from PRA-prcd, the photoreceptors begin to degenerate, causing an inability to interpret changes in light resulting in loss of vision. Rod cells, which are normally function in low-light, begin to degenerate first, leading to night-blindness. The cone cells, which normally function in bright-light or daytime conditions, will deteriorate next. This often leads to complete blindness over time.

 

PRA-prcd is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder. A dog must have two copies of the mutated gene to be affected by PRA. A dog can have one copy of the mutation and not experience any symptoms of the disease. Dogs with one copy of the mutation are known as carriers, meaning that they can pass on the mutation to potential offspring. If they breed with another carrier, there is a 25% chance that the offspring can inherit one copy of the mutated gene from each parent, and be affected by the disease.